Publications

[lvca_tabs][lvca_tab tab_title=”Speeches and Brochures”]

 

McCloskey: La cruzada rebelde

By: Rafael Rincón-Urdaneta Zerpa

Deirdre McCloskey y su trilogía liberal.

 

 

 

 

FPP’s Contitutional Manual

This manual presents some of the core concepts wich must be considered in order to understand what a Constitution is. This way, you will be able to participate in the decision taking place in the country with an informed view.

 

 

 

 

The frailty of democracy in Latin America

By: Mauricio Rojas

Speech delivered by Mauricio Rojas in the international seminar “Vargas Llosa: Cultura, ideas y libertad” (Vargas Llosa: Culture, ideas and liberty”). Casa de América, Madrid, March 29th – 30th, 2016. Panel II – Democracy and Populism in Latin America. Commemoration of Mario Vargas Llosa’ 80 years.

 

 

 

 

What is happening to Chile?

By: Jorge Gómez and Rafael Rincón

How, when and why the amazing “Chilean miracle” began to resemble the typical Latin American mediocrity? What is happening to Chile? This document is aimed at contributing and summarizing some explanations and interpretations – rather political than economical – of what could be the most determinant turn for the country’s future in the last years.

 

 

 

 

Decalogue of a Populist

By: Enrique Krauze (2005) – Graphic Adjustment FPP (2015)

The “Decalogue of a Populist” is a graphic adjustment made by FPP (2015) inspired in the column “Decalogue of Ibero-American populism” written by Enrique Krauze and published on October 23rd 2005 in his website enriquekrauze.com.mx

Enrique Krauze is a Mexican editor, critic, historian and writer. He is also the director of the magazine Letras Libres (Free Humanities) and author, among other books, of “El poder y el delirio” (“Power and delirium”), “Travesía liberal” (“Liberal Journey”), and “Redentores, Ideas y Poder en América Latina (“Redeemers, Ideas and Power in Latin America”).

 

 

 

 

Essay by Deirdre McCloskey on Picketty’s The Capital in the Twenty-first Century

By: Fundación para el progreso.

An interesting and devastating criticism by Deirdre McCloskey to Tomas Piketty’s last publication entitled The Capital in the Twenty-first Century. Under the name Measured, Unmeasured, Mismeasured, and Unjustified Pessimism, the historian carries out a detailed analysis, brilliantly refuting the different passages of this economist’s book. Among others, she indicates that Piketty has no idea of the supply and demand system, emphasizing that the French author ignores the sense of “human capital” and puts aside education, which has driven economic and social growth for more than 150 years.

 

 

 

 

The Procrustean bed – Book Review: “La Tiranía de la Igualdad” (“The Tyranny of Egalitarianism”)

By: Jorge Gómez Arismendi

“Axel Kaiser shows us that the concept of justice in the egalitarian and socialist project is founded on a denial of free will, where people must waive their individual will and autonomy, all of this in favor of Egalitarianism.”

*Procrustes or Damastes, known as the stretcher, the subjugator, or the controller. According to Greek mythology he was Poseidon’s son. He used his power to force his inn’s guests to adapt them to his iron bed no matter what it took, with the purpose of providing them with comfort. This activity however included cutting out legs to those who were too tall for it; or stretching until dismembering them when they were too short.

 

 

 

 

Are we condemned?

By: Rafael Rincón-Urdaneta Z.

Are we condemned? Are we moving directly towards the black Bolivarian precipice? Or towards the Argentinean, where a district attorney one day appears silenced forever? The truth is that what has been happening in Chile until now, with the relevant warnings and imperfections, is in cartographic terms more yellow than red. First, institutional mechanisms are working; for example, the suspicious are being investigated and the president’s son was forced to resign, going out through the vile door of humiliation. On the other hand, freedom of expression is until now being honored without any visible reprisal fears – a usual practice in corrupt nations, where any moderately daring journalist is pressured or forced to sleep with an open eye. In addition, public anger tells us that as a society we are not indifferent and we have not gotten used to theft, as is the rule in our neighborhood. These are all very favorable signs and certainly rare between the Río Grande and the Patagonia.}

 

 

 

 

 

Compact, focused and limited

By: Rafael Rincón-Urdaneta Z.

Corruption problems and scandals, inefficiency and inefficaciousness, especially in States with too many attributions – more than convenient – and wide bureaucracy, encourage us to meditate on the size, complexity and scopes of the state power.

Certainly weak and failed States are responsible for a large part of the world problems, but obese and almighty States are not a choice: they cause damage and represent fatal hazards to people and societies, especially because of the power they can (really or potentially) concentrate. How should the State be, grossly, sufficiently adequate to reduce the risks associated to its own power and, at the same time – as Karl Popper used to say – prevent bad governors from causing too much damage?

 

 

 

 

The power of civil society

By: Niall Ferguson

Beyond the State and the Market.

Civil society is becoming increasingly important in our public debate, as the limitations, both of the state and the market, to solve many problems are increasingly evident. This has made both the left that confuses society with the state, and the right that confuses it with the market, perplexed. This text is exclusively dedicated to call the attention of civil society, since this is a crucial issue for our development in the next decades.

Lecture by Niall Ferguson (Recorded in the Edinburgh Royal Society and transmitted for the first time by BBC’s Radio 4 and the BBC World Service on Tuesday, July 2nd, 2012. (Translated to Spanish and published in a brochure by Fundación para el Progreso 2014)

 

 

 

 

Chile and constitutional populism

By: Mauricio Rojas

Presentation by Mauricio Rojas at the Conference “La Libertad y sus Desafíos” (“Liberty and its Challenges”), organized by LyD (Liberty and Development) for its 25th Anniversary.

 

 

 

 

Presentation by Roberto Ampuero at the Conference “La Libertad y sus Desafíos”

By: Roberto Ampuero

Presentation by Roberto Ampuero at the Conference “La Libertad y sus Desafíos” (“Liberty and its Challenges”), organized by LyD (Liberty and Development) for its 25th Anniversary.

 

 

 

 

In the Air Tonight: the invoice of history.

By: Roberto Ampuero

A speech that invites to meditation and to learn from the recent history. It generated ovations and awoke controversy as very few political interventions in Chile in the last years.

Speech delivered by Roberto Ampuero on November 27th, 2014 at the Encuentro Nacional de la Empresa (National Companies Meeting) (ENADE)

 

 

 

 

Niall Ferguson x 2: Civilization and the Big Degeneration

By: Niall Ferguson

Summary of the amazing books “Civilization: the west and the rest” (2011) y “The Big Degeneration: How institutions decay and economies die” (2013)

Niall Ferguson is one of the world most polemic and influencing intellectuals at this time.

 

 

 

 

Ludwig von Mises and the role of the economist: a historical approach

By: Victor Espinosa

This essay reconstructs the work of Ludwig von Mises, with special emphasis on his views on the role of the economist in society. It is possible to identify three phases in this journey: the first, in his childhood and adolescence, marked by a glorified vision of the State as a driving force for progress and social coordination; the second, since the publishing of Theory of Money and Credit (1912) until his departure from Vienna in 1934, due to the menace of Nazism in Austria; and the third, since his arrival in Geneva until his death in the United States of America. Along these periods, two facets of Mises can be appreciated: an academic one, and another as a relevant actor in the discussion of public policies. This last aspect of Mises has been more ignored; however, it is fundamental in order to understand his stance in regards to the role of the economist.

 

 

 

 

Classical liberalism as the realization of the egalitarian ideal

By: Axel Kaiser

 

 

 

 

Piketty and his Capital in the 21st Century: an Austrian interpretation

By: Fernando Claro

For Thomas Piketty, capitalism has deterministic laws which make inequality of income and of capital grow constantly. The main reason would be the high savings rates of capitalists in contrast to the rest of the people—regardless of his pointing out that it is the inequality between the higher rates of return on capital (ROC) and those of economic growth and growth of salaries.—This work describes the theory behind this proposition and compares them with the theory of capital developed by the Austrian school of economics which, from a more realistic conception of economy, contradicts and invalidates them.

 

 

 

 

The radical liberalism of José Victorino Lastarria

By: Jorge Gómez

The character of José Victorino Lastarria – a politician, essay writer and teacher – has been analyzed from several points of view. This essay states that his work Lecciones de Política Positiva (Lessons of Positive Politics) shows that Lastarria’s political ideas represent a particular stream of Chilean liberal thought, framed within the classic liberal tradition fundamentals.

 

 

 

 

To distribute or increase the cake? An old debate that acquires power around the world

By: Eduardo Gomien

This essay includes a brief summary of economic theory and especially how it understood wealth and the chances to create it (or not). Different proposals from some of the most important theorists on economic science are presented to show how such an ancient debate may still be so in vogue nowadays, after two hundred years of meditation.

 

 

 

 

Moral limits of the market

By: Fernando Claro

This essay is a brief review of the several arguments existing in literature against mercantilism. It is mainly based on the work developed by Jason Brennan & Peter M. Jaworski in their book written in 2015, Markets without limits: Moral virtues and commercial interests.

 

 

 

 

The “Chicago School” and the basis of Chilean economic transformation

By: Francisco Rosende

This essay is aimed at discussing how the influence of the “Chicago” economists was originated in the deep institution transformation process that drove Chile’s economic progress, and in what proportion has this persisted after the end of the military government in March 1990.

 

 

 

 

Consequences from interest rate interventions

By: Iván Cachanosky

Governors of several countries often use the interest rate set by Central Banks as a political tool. Because of a huge mistake in the interpretation of what interest rate is, by confusing it with the price of money, governments make decisions that change economic cycles, thus harming the population in its entirety. In this essay we will try to prove that when the monetary policy is to print paper money, severe consequences are caused to economy and that promoting low-cost credits generates alterations to the interest rate. This results in bad decisions, giving origin to economic cycles characterized by successive crisis.

 

 

 

 

Myths behind poverty and inequality

By: Iván Cachanosky

The poverty and inequality dilemma is globally one of the most important concerns in the economic and political news. However, although poverty is a phenomenon existing since ancient times, discussions regarding inequality began much later, after the Industrial Revolution in the late Eighteenth Century and early Nineteenth Century.

This essay is aimed at deposing the myth that poverty and inequality are synonyms.

 

 

 

 

The corruption phenomenon

By: Jorge Gómez Arismendi

Corruption has frequently been present in the history of mankind. There is no society that has not shown certain levels or kinds of corruption at several levels and environments. It is a polysemic concept that may include different practices like nepotism, fraud, clientelism, or influence peddling. It is important to take into account that we should talk of corruption not when there are isolated cases where integrity has been broken (whether by the government or private parties), but when corrupt practices are generalized and systematic ally carried out and when they interfere with a good performance and legality of institutions, both by the government or the private sector.

 

 

 

 

Economic and political freedom: the case of Venezuela

By: Yasmín Zaror

Yasmín Zaror explains how the systematic restrictions to political and economic freedoms in Venezuela have generated a profound and acute crisis which has affected the quality of life of its citizens, to the point of putting at risk their food and sanitary safety.

 

 

 

 

2016 Index of Economic Freedom – Are we Chileans free?

By: FPP | GFK Adimark

The FPP Index of Freedom is an annual research which aims at investigating how free we Chileans are and feel, how our institutions face this issue, and explores upon our possibilities of acting, thinking, deciding, and choosing without intromissions or limitations.

 

 

 

 

Chile: more equitable? – Executive summary of the book

By: Claudio Sapelli

Executive summary of Professor Claudio Sapelli’s revealing study on the setback of inequality in Chile.

 

 

 

 

Tax Awareness. How does tax payments impact the poorest quintile?

By: Iván Cachanosky

This report is aimed at creating Fiscal Awareness due to the empiric evidence showing that average Chilean citizens generally ignore whether or not they pay taxes and how much they contribute. Encouraging tax elimination is not the objective, since – from the classic liberalism point of view – the State must fulfill (limited) tasks for a good developing of economy. This document will discuss how tax payment impacts the two poorest quintiles of the Chilean population.

 

 

 

 

Barometer of Liberty 2015 – Summarized Version

By: Fundación para el Progreso – GfK Adimark

The study entitled Barometer of Liberty is an unpublished research – which will be regularly published from now on – that, rather than investigating how free Chileans are and how our institutions operate and develop, it studies how we feel regarding our possibilities of acting, thinking and making choices without any interference or limitations. It is aimed at illuminating how valuable is freedom and a free society to us. It is written from an analytical perspective, acknowledging how important subjectivity is in the life of societies, in politics and in relations among individuals, civil organizations, and the State. It includes dimensions of individual and collective freedom, in the private and public environments.

We present here a summary of the first version of this instrument and we hope that it will contribute to a permanent debate and improvement of our liberal democratic institutions.

 

 

 

 

Barometer of Liberty 2015 – Complete Version

By: Fundación para el Progreso – GfK Adimark

The study named Barometer of Liberty is an unpublished research – which will be regularly published from now on – that, rather than investigating how free Chileans are and how our institutions operate and develop, it studies how we feel regarding our possibilities of acting, thinking and making choices without any interference or limitations. It is aimed at illuminating how valuable is freedom and a free society to us. It is written from an analytical perspective, acknowledging how important subjectivity is in the life of societies, in politics and in relations among individuals, civil organizations, and the State. It includes dimensions of individual and collective freedom, in the private and public environments.

We present here a summary of the first version of this instrument and we hope that it will contribute to a permanent debate and improvement of our liberal democratic institutions.

 

 

 

 

Capitalism, why not?

By: Jason Brennan

In a brilliant and ingenious manner, Brennan refutes the most renowned socialist of the last half century demonstrating that capitalism is superior to socialism not only economically but, above all, morally.

 

 

 

 

The unexceptional Scandinavian model.

By: Nima Sanandaji

The development and progress achieved by the admired northern societies is not due to state interventionism nor to high taxes, but to a virtuous mix of economic freedom and the entrepreneur spirit combined with old cultural features regarding the ethics of work and duty. This is what Nima Sanandaji shows us from a historical perspective, emphasizing that what has driven Scandinavian progress is not socialism but freedom, undertaking, a limited but active and honest State, civic culture, morality and equal basic opportunities.

 

 

 

 

Classic Liberalism: basic manual.

By: Eamonn Butler

This work helps to classify knowledge on classic liberalism and its history since its origin until now. If we have gaps or maybe unconnected scattered information, this book is very helpful to put facts in order and clarify any doubts.

This is an enriching reading, recommended for university students and for teaching use in courses or for general culture.

 

 

 

 

Free society fundamentals.

By: Eamonn Butler

“This work by Eamonn Butler –principal of the Adam Smith Institute in the United Kingdom – is a very useful introduction to those seeking to understand the basic principles supporting a free society, always in vogue and essential. When arguing in favor of free market, limited government or the constitutional State, among others, the author emphasizes the moral and deeply human dimension of the institutions required by a society based on freedom, thus moving apart from the cold – and insufficient – economic approach that often seems to prevail when these issues are discussed. A book seeking to disseminate ideas, not to preach dogmas; and is aimed at stimulating meditation and debate rather than winning converts.”

 

 

 

 

The Fatal Ignorance.

By: Axel Kaiser

Why has the Chilean right wing failed to play a decisive role in the country’s social development? What needs to be done to prevent the progressive movement towards a redistributive statism that will finally condemn Chile to the classic Latin American underdevelopment? In an original and polemic manner, this book addresses the problem of the re-lefting in the Chilean political and social environment and the resulting consequences for the country’s destiny. With a severe criticism to the economic and political right wing, the author explains why fighting for culture and ideas is a fundamental pre-requirement to win the political battle in the medium and long term. In a politically incorrect tone, the author presents the urgent need of revising the intellectual basics of a culturally anorexic and ashamed right wing that is on its way to an ideological defeat, which consequences to the country’s future he is not able to predict.

 

 

 

 

Sweden, the other model: from the benefactor State to the assistance State.

By: Mauricio Rojas

Sweden is on its way back from the “large State”. Its famous welfare system fell apart a little more than two decades ago. A profound crisis in the early 1990’s was the price paid for the arrogance of a State that expanded with no limits and felt itself almighty. Very few would have then thought that, in a not very far away future, lights from the north would intensely shine again and that Sweden would be mentioned as a worth following model, but this is just what occurred. Today, after two decades of deep reforms, Sweden is again an international model. Not long ago The Economist -2013- called it, together with other northern countries, “the supermodel of the future.” Mauricio Rojas.

 

 

 

 

From consensus to a crossroads. The debate about the Chilean model.

By: Rafael Rincón

Not long ago, consensus regarding the Chilean economic model – the country’s development strategy consisting in a free market economy and a liberal democratic political system – seemed unbreakable and unbending. Some time ago, nothing or very little, except more or less isolated or poorly resounding criticisms, suggested that soon an intense and deep debate on the convenience of continuing by the development path that has taken Chile to become a worth following example in the region would arise.

However, things seem to be changing just when the country, thanks to its economic and political design, is in its way to cross the development threshold. For the first time, even with the best results and auspicious expectations, the model is seriously questioned and defied by a highly impacting intellectual and political criticism. Large manifestations evidence exhaustion and injustice and prove a generalized rejection to today’s Chile.

 

 

 

 

Why freedom?

By: Fundación para el progreso.

“Being liberal implies to be concerned about other people’s freedom and respect to other people’s rights, even if we do not agree with their actions or words. It means to renounce the use of power and, instead, try to achieve our goals, whether personal happiness or improvement of human being’s status, or knowledge, or all the above, or any other thing, exclusively through voluntary and peaceful actions, whether in the “capitalist” world of undertaking freedom and exchange, or in science, or in philanthropy, art, love, friendship or any other human activity covered by the rules of voluntary collaboration”. Tom Palmer, Chapter I.

 

 

 

 

The morality of capitalism.

By: Fundación para el progreso.

Come in. Take the risk. Fight for the arguments of this book. Meditate them. And then develop your own opinion.

The term “capitalism” does not only refer to the goods and services exchange markets existing since immemorial times, but also to the innovation, wealth creation and social change system that has given origin to the prosperity for billions of people, which was unimaginable for the first generations of human beings. This book does not only circumscribe to an abstract moral philosophy, it also refers to economy, logics, history, literature and other disciplines.

I also recommend you to read the best criticism to free market capitalism. Read Marx. Read Sombart. Read Rawls. Read Sandel. Understand them. Let them convince you. Meditate on them.

I have read better arguments against free market capitalism than those exposed by most of its main detractors and this is why I feel that many times, I could make a better argument than they do. This book offers the other side of the discussion, the side whose existence is usually omitted.

 

 

 

 

Freedom and its enemies.

By: Mauricio Rojas

Extreme goodness, wanting to create paradise on earth or establishing definite social justice, carries a terrible background, a cost that many have paid along history under their governors’ whim: the sacrifice of human being’s freedom. Totalitarianism was an expression of this desire of transforming human being into what governors thought he should be, which was however carried out by barbarism, co-action and at the cost of freedom, dignity and the life of many human beings. In Freedom and its enemies, Mauricio Rojas talks about that genocide idealism, about his own experience when he was young as a believer in that millennium-focused atheism, who believed in the coming up of a new man and a society without classes.

Freedom and its enemies debunks that idealism of Marxist roots offering paradise on earth, more justice, more equality and more freedom, but however ends up like hell; a regime where many are slaves and few – the communist governing class – are privileged. The book also shows how freedom ideas must be articulated not only to avoid the despotism of collectivisms of any party and defend human dignity, but also to found a strong and active civil society, where pluralism and associability prevail as a basis for a free open society.

 

 

 

 

Christian roots of free market economy.

By: Alejandro Chafuen

This book’s main objective is to study contributions to a better understanding of free society behavior by an important number of catholic thinkers, especially in the field of economy.

Catholic authors opposing to economic freedom are easily found. Many even believe that free market is opposed to the Church’s doctrine. Others think that such system will never let us achieve certain highly desirable goals. But there are even more people that oppose to these ideas based on the opinions and authority of priests, pastors or moralists they trust.

This study is addressed to all those people, whether catholic or not, who believe that free market is incompatible with Christianity. It is also addressed to those who are already convinced that economic freedom is an essential component of man’s liberty.

 

 

 

 

About two debates for today’s world.

By: Alberto Benegas Lynch (h)

The beginning of this book is based on the works by the Frenchman Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneuil, the first economics teacher in Chile, who published about very different topics but was especially influential on banking systems and tax policies. In this context and based on an updated bibliography, Alberto Benegas Lynch (h) presents in this work meditated arguments and counter-arguments on currency, banks and taxes compatible with an open society. On these studied issues, he explores fertile streams of the liberal thinking tradition and works on conceptual skeletons related to individual autonomies. He also makes remarks on Courcelle-Seneuil’s reflections in light of debates being held in different countries in the current world.

In a wider perspective, the author expresses that “it must be stated that liberalism is always boiling because every conclusion is temporary and open to potential refutation … We must be attentive to new and valuable contributions such as those arising lately in marrowy books and essays written by creative and original minds. This is the case of refutations to classic arguments on public goods, free-riders, externalities, the prisoner’s dilemma, confusions regarding the so-called “tragedy of anti-commons” and, in the context of information asymmetry, the adverse selection and the moral risk”.

 

 

 

 

A work for liberty.

By: Cristián Garay

Born in Seneuil, France in 1813, Courcelle-Seneuil was a republican, a democrat and a liberal. He wrote many articles and twenty books. The most renowned are his theoretical and practical treatises on banking operations (1853), on industry, trade and farming companies (1855) on political economics (1858). He also performed as advisor on economic issues for the Government of Chile, teacher at the Instituto Nacional and the Universidad de Chile. He is quoted twice by Marx in ‘’The Capital’’, the second time to mock at the abstinence theory, – which won the German genius a hard reprimand from Schumpeter-. He was mail counterpart to Stuart Mill in addition to being a translator to French and writing the prologue for his ‘’Principles of Political Economy” (1861) and a selection of Adam Smith’s “The wealth of nations” (1888). He was a member of the French Moral and Political Science Academy since 1882 until he died in Paris in 1892.

 

 

 

 

A legacy of freedom. Milton Friedman in Chile.

By: Several Authors

“The real miracle of Chile isn’t how good they are doing economically; the true miracle is that a military junta decided to go against its own principles and establish a free market designed by the followers of such ideas. Results were amazing. Inflation dropped fast. After a short recession and low production period, unavoidable when such a high inflation is reversed, the product began to expand and since then, the Chilean economy has shown better results than all the rest of South America”.

“In Chile, the pressure for political freedom, which was (partly) generated by the economic freedom and the successful economic results, ended up in a plebiscite that introduced democracy. Now, after a long period, Chile has three things: political freedom, people’s freedom and economic freedom. Chile will continue to be very interesting to observe and see whether the country is able to keep all three on a simultaneous basis or if now that it has political freedom the latter won’t be used to destroy or reduce economic freedom”. Milton Friedman (translated by Jaime Bellolio).

 

 

 

 

Fly high. The revolution of social mobility in Chile.

By: Eduardo Gomien

“In Chile, there are many anonymous heroes. Men and women of different ages that, when subjected to countless troubles, have been able to defeat adversity. I refer to the millions of Chilean people that have overcome poverty in the last decades and have searched with effort for the ways to make their dreams come true”.

This book tells the story of five anonymous titans whose overcoming examples are so needed in our country. Virtuous individuals who have put in practice that you don’t have to protest against destiny, you have to defeat it. The stories of Marcelo Pino, Carol Hullin, Marco Lincoñir, Mariana Sandoval or Carlos Albornoz show that life is full of obstacles, but by making correct decisions in a free society, progressing and achieving our dearest goals is possible.

The book is aimed at breaking deeply-rooted prejudices of the Chilean society, like overvaluing last names, physical characters or the municipality where one was born. In summary, it is aimed at finishing with the absurd belief that progress is reserved only for a few.

 

 

 

 

Latin America. Trends and perspectives of the new century.

By: Fundación para el Progreso

Prologue by Carlos Malamud. Presentation Colonel Diego Jiménez. Authors Javier Castro, Michael Gold-Biss, Rodolfo Martinic, Raúl Sanhueza, Rafael Rincón-Urdaneta, Raúl Rivera, Alejandro Ruelas-Gossi and Iván Witker.

Understanding the Latin American reality will always be challenging because of its cultural, political and social diversity. The multiple integration projects show this. Notwithstanding, and in the framework of the international environment, the region has shown several transformations that undoubtedly represent new problems, which could create important opportunities for our nations’ development.

Latin America. Trends and Perspectives of the new century, compiles articles from renowned academics that, from the different points of view and with an ample knowledge, analyze this reality, providing approaches that invite to reflection on the relevance of events.

Therefore, this publication invites the reader to walk through the regional issues that address safety, economic, management and cultural aspects, among others.

[/lvca_tab][lvca_tab tab_title=”Essays”]

 

 

Ludwig von Mises and the role of the economist: a historical approach

By: Victor Espinosa

This essay reconstructs the work of Ludwig von Mises, with special emphasis on his views on the role of the economist in society. It is possible to identify three phases in this journey: the first, in his childhood and adolescence, marked by a glorified vision of the State as a driving force for progress and social coordination; the second, since the publishing of Theory of Money and Credit (1912) until his departure from Vienna in 1934, due to the menace of Nazism in Austria; and the third, since his arrival in Geneva until his death in the United States of America. Along these periods, two facets of Mises can be appreciated: an academic one, and another as a relevant actor in the discussion of public policies. This last aspect of Mises has been more ignored; however, it is fundamental in order to understand his stance in regards to the role of the economist.

 

 

     

 

Classical liberalism as the realization of the egalitarian ideal

By: Axel Kaiser

 

 

 

 

Piketty and his Capital in the 21st Century: an Austrian interpretation

By: Fernando Claro

For Thomas Piketty, capitalism has deterministic laws which make inequality of income and of capital grow constantly. The main reason would be the high savings rates of capitalists in contrast to the rest of the people—regardless of his pointing out that it is the inequality between the higher rates of return on capital (ROC) and those of economic growth and growth of salaries.—This work describes the theory behind this proposition and compares them with the theory of capital developed by the Austrian school of economics which, from a more realistic conception of economy, contradicts and invalidates them.

 

 

 

 

 

The radical liberalism of José Victorino Lastarria

By: Jorge Gómez

The character of José Victorino Lastarria – a politician, essay writer and teacher – has been analyzed from several points of view. This essay states that his work Lecciones de Política Positiva (Lessons of Positive Politics) shows that Lastarria’s political ideas represent a particular stream of Chilean liberal thought, framed within the classic liberal tradition fundamentals.

 

 

 

 

To distribute or increase the cake? An old debate that acquires power around the world

By: Eduardo Gomien

This essay includes a brief summary of economic theory and especially how it understood wealth and the chances to create it (or not). Different proposals from some of the most important theorists on economic science are presented to show how such an ancient debate may still be so in vogue nowadays, after two hundred years of meditation.

 

 

 

 

 

Moral limits of the market

By: Fernando Claro

This essay is a brief review of the several arguments existing in literature against mercantilism. It is mainly based on the work developed by Jason Brennan & Peter M. Jaworski in their book written in 2015, Markets without limits: Moral virtues and commercial interests.

 

 

 

 

The “Chicago School” and the basis of Chilean economic transformation

By: Francisco Rosende

This essay is aimed at discussing how the influence of the “Chicago” economists was originated in the deep institution transformation process that drove Chile’s economic progress, and in what proportion has this persisted after the end of the military government in March 1990.

 

 

 

 

Consequences from interest rate interventions

By: Iván Cachanosky

Governors of several countries often use the interest rate set by Central Banks as a political tool. Because of a huge mistake in the interpretation of what interest rate is, by confusing it with the price of money, governments make decisions that change economic cycles, thus harming the population in its entirety. In this essay we will try to prove that when the monetary policy is to print paper money, severe consequences are caused to economy and that promoting low-cost credits generates alterations to the interest rate. This results in bad decisions, giving origin to economic cycles characterized by successive crisis.

[/lvca_tab][lvca_tab tab_title=”Studies”]

Economic and political freedom: the case of Venezuela

By: Yasmín Zaror

Yasmín Zaror explains how the systematic restrictions to political and economic freedoms in Venezuela have generated a profound and acute crisis which has affected the quality of life of its citizens, to the point of putting at risk their food and sanitary safety.

 

 

 

 

2016 Index of Economic Freedom – Are we Chileans free?

By: FPP | GFK Adimark

The FPP Index of Freedom is an annual research which aims at investigating how free we Chileans are and feel, how our institutions face this issue, and explores upon our possibilities of acting, thinking, deciding, and choosing without intromissions or limitations.

 

 

 

 

Chile: more equitable? – Executive summary of the book

By: Claudio Sapelli

Executive summary of Professor Claudio Sapelli’s revealing study on the setback of inequality in Chile.

 

 

 

 

Tax Awareness. How does tax payments impact the poorest quintile?

By: Iván Cachanosky

This report is aimed at creating Fiscal Awareness due to the empiric evidence showing that average Chilean citizens generally ignore whether or not they pay taxes and how much they contribute. Encouraging tax elimination is not the objective, since – from the classic liberalism point of view – the State must fulfill (limited) tasks for a good developing of economy. This document will discuss how tax payment impacts the two poorest quintiles of the Chilean population.

 

 

 

 

Barometer of Liberty 2015 – Summarized Version

By: Fundación para el Progreso – GfK Adimark

The study entitled Barometer of Liberty is an unpublished research – which will be regularly published from now on – that, rather than investigating how free Chileans are and how our institutions operate and develop, it studies how we feel regarding our possibilities of acting, thinking and making choices without any interference or limitations. It is aimed at illuminating how valuable is freedom and a free society to us. It is written from an analytical perspective, acknowledging how important subjectivity is in the life of societies, in politics and in relations among individuals, civil organizations, and the State. It includes dimensions of individual and collective freedom, in the private and public environments.

We present here a summary of the first version of this instrument and we hope that it will contribute to a permanent debate and improvement of our liberal democratic institutions.

 

 

 

 

Barometer of Liberty 2015 – Complete Version

By: Fundación para el Progreso – GfK Adimark

The study named Barometer of Liberty is an unpublished research – which will be regularly published from now on – that, rather than investigating how free Chileans are and how our institutions operate and develop, it studies how we feel regarding our possibilities of acting, thinking and making choices without any interference or limitations. It is aimed at illuminating how valuable is freedom and a free society to us. It is written from an analytical perspective, acknowledging how important subjectivity is in the life of societies, in politics and in relations among individuals, civil organizations, and the State. It includes dimensions of individual and collective freedom, in the private and public environments.

We present here a summary of the first version of this instrument and we hope that it will contribute to a permanent debate and improvement of our liberal democratic institutions.

 

 

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Capitalism, why not?

By: Jason Brennan

In a brilliant and ingenious manner, Brennan refutes the most renowned socialist of the last half century demonstrating that capitalism is superior to socialism not only economically but, above all, morally.

 

 

 

 

The unexceptional Scandinavian model.

By: Nima Sanandaji

The development and progress achieved by the admired northern societies is not due to state interventionism nor to high taxes, but to a virtuous mix of economic freedom and the entrepreneur spirit combined with old cultural features regarding the ethics of work and duty. This is what Nima Sanandaji shows us from a historical perspective, emphasizing that what has driven Scandinavian progress is not socialism but freedom, undertaking, a limited but active and honest State, civic culture, morality and equal basic opportunities.

 

 

 

 

Classic Liberalism: basic manual.

By: Eamonn Butler

This work helps to classify knowledge on classic liberalism and its history since its origin until now. If we have gaps or maybe unconnected scattered information, this book is very helpful to put facts in order and clarify any doubts.

This is an enriching reading, recommended for university students and for teaching use in courses or for general culture.

 

 

 

 

Free society fundamentals.

By: Eamonn Butler

“This work by Eamonn Butler –principal of the Adam Smith Institute in the United Kingdom – is a very useful introduction to those seeking to understand the basic principles supporting a free society, always in vogue and essential. When arguing in favor of free market, limited government or the constitutional State, among others, the author emphasizes the moral and deeply human dimension of the institutions required by a society based on freedom, thus moving apart from the cold – and insufficient – economic approach that often seems to prevail when these issues are discussed. A book seeking to disseminate ideas, not to preach dogmas; and is aimed at stimulating meditation and debate rather than winning converts.”

 

 

 

 

The Fatal Ignorance.

By: Axel Kaiser

Why has the Chilean right wing failed to play a decisive role in the country’s social development? What needs to be done to prevent the progressive movement towards a redistributive statism that will finally condemn Chile to the classic Latin American underdevelopment? In an original and polemic manner, this book addresses the problem of the re-lefting in the Chilean political and social environment and the resulting consequences for the country’s destiny. With a severe criticism to the economic and political right wing, the author explains why fighting for culture and ideas is a fundamental pre-requirement to win the political battle in the medium and long term. In a politically incorrect tone, the author presents the urgent need of revising the intellectual basics of a culturally anorexic and ashamed right wing that is on its way to an ideological defeat, which consequences to the country’s future he is not able to predict.

 

 

 

 

Sweden, the other model: from the benefactor State to the assistance State.

By: Mauricio Rojas

Sweden is on its way back from the “large State”. Its famous welfare system fell apart a little more than two decades ago. A profound crisis in the early 1990’s was the price paid for the arrogance of a State that expanded with no limits and felt itself almighty. Very few would have then thought that, in a not very far away future, lights from the north would intensely shine again and that Sweden would be mentioned as a worth following model, but this is just what occurred. Today, after two decades of deep reforms, Sweden is again an international model. Not long ago The Economist -2013- called it, together with other northern countries, “the supermodel of the future.” Mauricio Rojas.

 

 

 

 

From consensus to a crossroads. The debate about the Chilean model.

By: Rafael Rincón

Not long ago, consensus regarding the Chilean economic model – the country’s development strategy consisting in a free market economy and a liberal democratic political system – seemed unbreakable and unbending. Some time ago, nothing or very little, except more or less isolated or poorly resounding criticisms, suggested that soon an intense and deep debate on the convenience of continuing by the development path that has taken Chile to become a worth following example in the region would arise.

However, things seem to be changing just when the country, thanks to its economic and political design, is in its way to cross the development threshold. For the first time, even with the best results and auspicious expectations, the model is seriously questioned and defied by a highly impacting intellectual and political criticism. Large manifestations evidence exhaustion and injustice and prove a generalized rejection to today’s Chile.

 

 

 

 

Why freedom?

By: Fundación para el progreso.

“Being liberal implies to be concerned about other people’s freedom and respect to other people’s rights, even if we do not agree with their actions or words. It means to renounce the use of power and, instead, try to achieve our goals, whether personal happiness or improvement of human being’s status, or knowledge, or all the above, or any other thing, exclusively through voluntary and peaceful actions, whether in the “capitalist” world of undertaking freedom and exchange, or in science, or in philanthropy, art, love, friendship or any other human activity covered by the rules of voluntary collaboration”. Tom Palmer, Chapter I.

 

 

 

 

The morality of capitalism.

By: Fundación para el progreso.

Come in. Take the risk. Fight for the arguments of this book. Meditate them. And then develop your own opinion.

The term “capitalism” does not only refer to the goods and services exchange markets existing since immemorial times, but also to the innovation, wealth creation and social change system that has given origin to the prosperity for billions of people, which was unimaginable for the first generations of human beings. This book does not only circumscribe to an abstract moral philosophy, it also refers to economy, logics, history, literature and other disciplines.

I also recommend you to read the best criticism to free market capitalism. Read Marx. Read Sombart. Read Rawls. Read Sandel. Understand them. Let them convince you. Meditate on them.

I have read better arguments against free market capitalism than those exposed by most of its main detractors and this is why I feel that many times, I could make a better argument than they do. This book offers the other side of the discussion, the side whose existence is usually omitted.

 

 

 

 

Freedom and its enemies.

By: Mauricio Rojas

Extreme goodness, wanting to create paradise on earth or establishing definite social justice, carries a terrible background, a cost that many have paid along history under their governors’ whim: the sacrifice of human being’s freedom. Totalitarianism was an expression of this desire of transforming human being into what governors thought he should be, which was however carried out by barbarism, co-action and at the cost of freedom, dignity and the life of many human beings. In Freedom and its enemies, Mauricio Rojas talks about that genocide idealism, about his own experience when he was young as a believer in that millennium-focused atheism, who believed in the coming up of a new man and a society without classes.

Freedom and its enemies debunks that idealism of Marxist roots offering paradise on earth, more justice, more equality and more freedom, but however ends up like hell; a regime where many are slaves and few – the communist governing class – are privileged. The book also shows how freedom ideas must be articulated not only to avoid the despotism of collectivisms of any party and defend human dignity, but also to found a strong and active civil society, where pluralism and associability prevail as a basis for a free open society.

 

 

 

 

About two debates for today’s world.

By: Alberto Benegas Lynch (h)

The beginning of this book is based on the works by the Frenchman Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneuil, the first economics teacher in Chile, who published about very different topics but was especially influential on banking systems and tax policies. In this context and based on an updated bibliography, Alberto Benegas Lynch (h) presents in this work meditated arguments and counter-arguments on currency, banks and taxes compatible with an open society. On these studied issues, he explores fertile streams of the liberal thinking tradition and works on conceptual skeletons related to individual autonomies. He also makes remarks on Courcelle-Seneuil’s reflections in light of debates being held in different countries in the current world.

In a wider perspective, the author expresses that “it must be stated that liberalism is always boiling because every conclusion is temporary and open to potential refutation … We must be attentive to new and valuable contributions such as those arising lately in marrowy books and essays written by creative and original minds. This is the case of refutations to classic arguments on public goods, free-riders, externalities, the prisoner’s dilemma, confusions regarding the so-called “tragedy of anti-commons” and, in the context of information asymmetry, the adverse selection and the moral risk”.

 

 

 

 

A work for liberty.

By: Cristián Garay

Born in Seneuil, France in 1813, Courcelle-Seneuil was a republican, a democrat and a liberal. He wrote many articles and twenty books. The most renowned are his theoretical and practical treatises on banking operations (1853), on industry, trade and farming companies (1855) on political economics (1858). He also performed as advisor on economic issues for the Government of Chile, teacher at the Instituto Nacional and the Universidad de Chile. He is quoted twice by Marx in ‘’The Capital’’, the second time to mock at the abstinence theory, – which won the German genius a hard reprimand from Schumpeter-. He was mail counterpart to Stuart Mill in addition to being a translator to French and writing the prologue for his ‘’Principles of Political Economy” (1861) and a selection of Adam Smith’s “The wealth of nations” (1888). He was a member of the French Moral and Political Science Academy since 1882 until he died in Paris in 1892.

 

 

 

 

A legacy of freedom. Milton Friedman in Chile.

By: Several Authors

“The real miracle of Chile isn’t how good they are doing economically; the true miracle is that a military junta decided to go against its own principles and establish a free market designed by the followers of such ideas. Results were amazing. Inflation dropped fast. After a short recession and low production period, unavoidable when such a high inflation is reversed, the product began to expand and since then, the Chilean economy has shown better results than all the rest of South America”.

“In Chile, the pressure for political freedom, which was (partly) generated by the economic freedom and the successful economic results, ended up in a plebiscite that introduced democracy. Now, after a long period, Chile has three things: political freedom, people’s freedom and economic freedom. Chile will continue to be very interesting to observe and see whether the country is able to keep all three on a simultaneous basis or if now that it has political freedom the latter won’t be used to destroy or reduce economic freedom”. Milton Friedman (translated by Jaime Bellolio).

 

 

 

 

Fly high. The revolution of social mobility in Chile.

By: Eduardo Gomien

“In Chile, there are many anonymous heroes. Men and women of different ages that, when subjected to countless troubles, have been able to defeat adversity. I refer to the millions of Chilean people that have overcome poverty in the last decades and have searched with effort for the ways to make their dreams come true”.

This book tells the story of five anonymous titans whose overcoming examples are so needed in our country. Virtuous individuals who have put in practice that you don’t have to protest against destiny, you have to defeat it. The stories of Marcelo Pino, Carol Hullin, Marco Lincoñir, Mariana Sandoval or Carlos Albornoz show that life is full of obstacles, but by making correct decisions in a free society, progressing and achieving our dearest goals is possible.

The book is aimed at breaking deeply-rooted prejudices of the Chilean society, like overvaluing last names, physical characters or the municipality where one was born. In summary, it is aimed at finishing with the absurd belief that progress is reserved only for a few.

 

 

 

 

Latin America. Trends and perspectives of the new century.

By: Fundación para el Progreso

Prologue by Carlos Malamud. Presentation Colonel Diego Jiménez. Authors Javier Castro, Michael Gold-Biss, Rodolfo Martinic, Raúl Sanhueza, Rafael Rincón-Urdaneta, Raúl Rivera, Alejandro Ruelas-Gossi and Iván Witker.

Understanding the Latin American reality will always be challenging because of its cultural, political and social diversity. The multiple integration projects show this. Notwithstanding, and in the framework of the international environment, the region has shown several transformations that undoubtedly represent new problems, which could create important opportunities for our nations’ development.

Latin America. Trends and Perspectives of the new century, compiles articles from renowned academics that, from the different points of view and with an ample knowledge, analyze this reality, providing approaches that invite to reflection on the relevance of events.

Therefore, this publication invites the reader to walk through the regional issues that address safety, economic, management and cultural aspects, among others.

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